Electrical Resistivity Method is one of the Geophysical techniques used to investigate the nature of the subsurface formations. In this method, current sent into the ground through a pair of electrodes, called current electrodes, and resulting potential difference across the ground is measured with the help of another pair of electrodes, called potential electrodes.
The ratio between the potential difference (V) and the current (I) gives the apparent resistance, which depends on the electrode arrangement and on the resistivities of the subsurface formations. There are several types of electrode arrangements (configurations) of which Wenner and Schlumberger configurations are more popular. This method used for the following applications,